By Colin Jones
There may be few extra mesmerising old narratives than the tale of ways the dazzlingly convinced and safe monarchy Louis XIV, 'the sunlight King', left to his successors in 1715 grew to become the discredited, debt-ridden failure toppled by means of Revolution in1789. The additional tale of the bloody unravelling of the Revolution until eventually its seizure through Napoleon is both astounding.
Colin Jones' very good new e-book is the 1st in forty years to explain the entire interval. Jones' key element during this gripping narrative is that France used to be now not doomed to Revolution and that the 'ancien regime' DID stay dynamic and innovatory, twisting and turning till ultimately stoven in through the insupportable bills and humiliation of its wars with Britain.
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Additional resources for The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon: The New Penguin History of France
In this application, he carefully chose specific areas of the wing to be considered in the development of cross-sectional area distributions. For example, he omitted the cross-sectional areas of the bodies downstream of the wing trailing edge because the aerodynamic effects of those sections were relatively complex and unknown; however, these effects were probably secondary to those of the sections of the bodies above the wing surface. The semiconical forward and upper surfaces of the bodies were accompanied by a flat lower surface aft of the wing trailing edge.
Note wedges in pattern caused by intentional trips. aerodynamic forces and moments, performance, and controllability were measured by a Langley and Cessna team led by Daniel G. Murri and Frank L. Jordan, Jr. Sublimating chemicals were again used for correlation with flight results. The detection of large amounts of natural laminar flow and the correlation of design tools with flight results resulted in considerable excitement within the research community at Langley and Cessna. The double-pronged approach of complementary ground-based airfoil research and flight demonstrations by Langley was extremely valuable.
In July 1976, Whitcomb published a general design approach that summarized the aerodynamic technology involved in winglet design. At that time, the tunnel tests indicated that, for typical subsonic transport aircraft configurations, the induced drag could be reduced by about 20 percent and the aircraft lift-drag ratio could be increased by about 9 percent. The improvement in lift-drag ratio was more than twice as great as that achieved by a wingtip extension producing the same wing-root bending moment.