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A World History of Rubber: Empire, Industry, and the by Stephen L. Harp

By Stephen L. Harp

A global heritage of Rubber is helping readers comprehend and achieve new insights into the social and cultural contexts of world construction and intake, from the 19th century to this day, during the attention-grabbing tale of 1 commodity.

Divides the insurance into topics of race, migration, and hard work; gender on plantations and in factories; call for and daily intake; international Wars and nationalism; and resistance and independence
Highlights the interrelatedness of our global lengthy sooner than the age of globalization and the worldwide social inequalities that persist today
Discusses key recommendations of the 19th and 20th centuries, together with imperialism, industrialization, racism, and inequality, during the lens of rubber
presents a fascinating and available narrative for all degrees that's jam-packed with archival examine, illustrations, and maps

Acknowledgments ix Timeline xi worldwide Rubber and Tire businesses xvii advent: Why Rubber? 1 international Connections eight 1 Race, Migration, and exertions 10 Wild Rubber and Early eleven Wild Rubber and Empire 14 Plantations development: Rationality and potency 17 Plantation Hierarchies 21 Race and within the usa and Europe 29 2 ladies and Gender on Plantations and in Factories forty Gendering the Jungle and the Plantation forty two Asian ladies on Plantations forty four ecu girls and Racism forty eight The Colonizing girl 50 Gendered creation within the usa and Europe fifty two Rubber and intercourse in Indochine fifty six three call for and daily intake sixty one daily intake on Southeast Asian Plantations sixty two classification and intake in North the US and Europe sixty four Race and intake in Europe and North the US sixty eight Gender and intake in Europe and North the United States seventy one Gendering replica seventy seven four global Wars, Nationalism, and Imperialism eighty three international conflict I eighty four See the USA First on strong Roads 86 Flying for the state 88 limiting Rubber within the Wake of warfare ninety American Assertions: Herbert Hoover and US alternate ninety one Firestone and buddies ninety four Firestone in Liberia ninety six Germany: Colonies and chemical substances ninety nine international warfare II and the united states Scramble for Rubber 102 Nazi Racism and Buna at Auschwitz one zero five Imperialism and Nationalism within the Wake of worldwide conflict II 107 five Resistance and Independence 111 Plantations and Resistance 112 worldwide monetary challenge and Plantation hard work 118 luck of the Smallholders one hundred twenty Plantations below the japanese 124 Independence and Decolonization 126 United Rubber staff 131 end: Forgetting and Remembering Rubber 137 advised Readings 142 Index 157

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In essence, imperial notions of race determined longevity, and the deaths of workers and native peoples mattered less to planters than the deaths of whites. “Efficiency,” it seems, lay in the eye of the beholder. Plantation Hierarchies Like the symmetrically spaced trees on rubber plantations, order reigned in the careful hierarchy from plantation manager, to European assistants, to office clerks and overseers, to the laborers known as “coolies,” who actually did the physical work of clearing the forest, planting trees, tapping trees, hauling latex from the trees to processing areas, and constant weeding.

Latex gloves significantly reduced infections from surgery. Latex paints covered walls. Foam rubber replaced Spanish moss in 6 Introduction: Why Rubber? Model T seats, and soon became a standard material in all sorts of upholstery. Rubber gaskets, hoses, and belts became integral to machinery, from the generators on plantations to tractors on Midwestern farms, to ships, to automobiles, to airplanes. Until the widespread adoption of synthetic rubber and plastics after World War II replaced much of it, industrially processed natural rubber was literally omnipresent in Europe and North America.

Little by little, over the next two centuries Europeans on scientific expeditions learned more about the mysterious substance, seeing the actual latex‐bearing trees, how they were tapped, and how Indians transformed the latex into objects. The Frenchman who first described a rubber tree, Charles Marie de la Condamine, had led an expedition to the equator in order to conduct measurements and verify the shape of the globe, gathering and describing specimens of plants and animals along the way. While in South America, he saw a rubber tree tapped and named the whitish sap‐like substance “latex” (Latin for liquid or liqueur) and the smoke‐cured result caoutchouc.

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