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À reculons comme une écrevisse : Guerres chaudes et by Umberto Eco

By Umberto Eco

Le eleven septembre, l. a. guerre en Afghanistan et en Irak, le populisme médiatique au pouvoir : les premières années du troisième millénaire ne pouvaient pas échapper à l'analyse ravageuse d'Umberto Eco. Il en ressort que depuis quelque temps, le monde marche à reculons, de plus en plus vite, de plus en plus dramatiquement.

Après los angeles chute du mur de Berlin, il a fallu exhumer de vieux atlas pour retrouver les frontières oubliées depuis l. a. guerre de 1914. De l. a. guerre froide, on s'est empressé de retourner aux guerres les plus chaudes. Nous avons ressuscité le vieux strive against entre Islam et Chrétienté, et le cri ancestral de «Sauve qui peut, voilà les Turcs !» nous ramène au temps des Croisades. Le fantôme du Péril jaune resurgit, comme l'anti-darwinisme, l'antisémitisme, voire le contentieux que l'on croyait pourtant bien enterré entre l'Eglise et l'Etat...

Il semblerait que l'Histoire, à bout de souffle après les bonds qu'elle a effectués au cours des deux précédents millénaires, se soit affaissée sur elle-même et se précipite à reculons, comme une écrevisse.

Umberto Eco est né à Alexandrie, dans le Piémont, en 1932. Professeur de sémiotique et directeur de l'Ecole supérieure des études littéraires à l'Université de Bologne, il est l'auteur de nombreux essais dont remark voyager avec un saumon et de romans, Le Nom de los angeles Rose, Le Pendule de Foucault, L'Ile du jour d'avant, Baudolino et l. a. Reine Loana.

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Example text

In this application, he carefully chose specific areas of the wing to be considered in the development of cross-sectional area distributions. For example, he omitted the cross-sectional areas of the bodies downstream of the wing trailing edge because the aerodynamic effects of those sections were relatively complex and unknown; however, these effects were probably secondary to those of the sections of the bodies above the wing surface. The semiconical forward and upper surfaces of the bodies were accompanied by a flat lower surface aft of the wing trailing edge.

Note wedges in pattern caused by intentional trips. aerodynamic forces and moments, performance, and controllability were measured by a Langley and Cessna team led by Daniel G. Murri and Frank L. Jordan, Jr. Sublimating chemicals were again used for correlation with flight results. The detection of large amounts of natural laminar flow and the correlation of design tools with flight results resulted in considerable excitement within the research community at Langley and Cessna. The double-pronged approach of complementary ground-based airfoil research and flight demonstrations by Langley was extremely valuable.

In July 1976, Whitcomb published a general design approach that summarized the aerodynamic technology involved in winglet design. At that time, the tunnel tests indicated that, for typical subsonic transport aircraft configurations, the induced drag could be reduced by about 20 percent and the aircraft lift-drag ratio could be increased by about 9 percent. The improvement in lift-drag ratio was more than twice as great as that achieved by a wingtip extension producing the same wing-root bending moment.

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